Guide for Authors

      Manuscript length should not exceed 10 printed pages (reviews not more than 20 pages), including references, tables, and figure captions; it should contain no more than 7 figures. The manuscript must be typed (Times New Roman font, 12 pt, 1.5 spacing throughout) in a single column on one side of white paper (A4, 210 × 297 mm) with left and top margins of 2.5 cm and a right margin of 1.5 cm. All pages, including references, tables, and figure captions, should be numbered consecutively in the top right-hand corner. All lines should be enumerated throughout the entire text.

      Please arrange your manuscript as follows: Title, author(s), affiliation(s), abstract, keywords, abbreviation (optional), introduction, materials and methods, results, discussion, acknowledgements (optional), references, tables, and figures.

      The title must be concise (no more than 10 words) but informative. Capitalize the first letters in all nouns, pronouns, adjectives, verbs, adverbs, and subordinate conjunctions. Avoid nonstandard abbreviations.

      Authors’ initials and surnames should be writtenwith one space between the initials and between the initialsand an author’s surname. Author affiliations shouldbe marked as1, 2 etc.On a separate page, provide the full names of allauthors, their postal addresses and telephone and fax numbers, as well as e-mail addresses, and indicate thecorresponding author.

     Author affiliations include the department, institution,and complete address of each author. The faxnumber and e-mail address of the corresponding author should be indicated after his or her postal address.


      All papers, including brief communications, should be preceded by a concise (of no more than 250 words) but informative abstract, in which the plant material (binomial, including authority) is given. The abstract should explain to the general reader the major contributions of the article. The abstract is typed as a single paragraph. Citing and discussing literature are not recommended.

  Keywords. No more than seven items are listed beginning with the Latin name(s) of the organism(s) studied without author’s name and arranged as follows:

Keywords: Lycopersicon esculentum; transgenic tomato plant; ethylene

      Abbreviations. The abbreviation of the expressions used in the manuscript may be listed in alphabetical order and arranged as follows:

BA: benzyladenine; PSI: photosystem I; WT: wild type

     Define nonstandard abbreviations when they are first mentioned in the text and abstract.

Main headings

      The main headings within the text (Introduction, Materials and Methods, etc.) should be placed on separate lines with the first letters capitalized. First-level subheadings should follow title capitalization (example: Cytokinin, Dependent Signal Transduction) and be placed on separate lines. Second-level subheadings (i.e., headings running into a paragraph) should follow sentence capitalization (example: Plant material.).


      The introductory part of the article should explain its objective and cite relevant articles published previously.

Materials and Methods


      This section should include complete botanical names (genus, species, authority for the binomial, and, when appropriate, cultivar) for all plants studied. Following first mentions, generic names should be abbreviated to the initial except when confusion could arise by reference to genera with the same initial. Growth conditions must be described. Also new procedures should be described in sufficient detail to be repeated. A short description of other procedures should also be given. This section should also contain the names of the manufacturers (including country name) of materials and reagents. Statistical analysis of the results should be described. Identify the number of replications and the number of times individual experiments were duplicated. It should be clearly stated whether the standard deviation or the standard error is used.


     The result section should be presented mainly in figures and tables without their detailed discussion. Double documentation of the same points in figures and tables is not acceptable.


      This section should contain an interpretation but not a recapitulation of the results. The Results and Discussion sections may be combined if a description of experimental results is brief or when the interpretation of the previous experiment is required for the logical substantiation of the next one.




      List dedications, acknowledgments, and funding sources if any, under the heading 'Acknowledgements'.


      Cite published papers and books; citing the abstracts of meetings is not recommended. References at the end of the paper should be arranged alphabetically (by authors' names) in the reference list, all authors should be named unless there are 10 or more. For titles in English, including titles of books, journals, articles, chapters, and dissertations and names of conferences, use title capitalization. For titles given in a foreign language, follow the rules of capitalization for that language.

Journal articles:


Ouyang, D., J. Bartholic and J.   Selegean, 2005. 'Assessing sediment loading from agricultural croplands in the great lakes basin'. Journal of American Science, 1 (2): 14-21.


Durbin, R., S. R. Eddy, A. Krogh and G. Mitchison. 1999. Biological Sequence Analysis: Probabilistic Models of Proteins and Nucleic Acids. Cambridge: University Press.

A chapter in a book:

Leach, J. 1993. 'Impacts of the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) on water quality and fish spawning reefs of Western Lake Erie'. In Zebra Mussels: biology, impacts and control. Nalepa, T. and D. Schloesser (Eds.). Ann Arbor, MI: Lewis Publishers, pp: 381-397.

A Report:

Makarewicz, J. C., T. Lewis and P. Bertram. 1995. Epilimnetic phytoplankton and zooplankton biomass and species composition in Lake Michigan 1983-1992. U.S. EPA Great Lakes National Program, Chicago, IL. EPA 905-R-95-009.

Conference proceedings:

Stock, A. 2004. 'Signal transduction in bacteria'. Proceedings of the 2004 Markey Scholars Conference, pp: 80-89.

A thesis:

Strunk, J. L. 1991. The extraction of mercury from sediment and the geochemical partitioning of mercury in sediments from Lake Superior. M. Sc. thesis, Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI.

     For correct abbreviations of journal titles, refer to Chemical Abstracts Service Source Index (CASSI).


    Each table should have a brief title, be on a separate page, and be 1.5-spaced. Each column should have a heading; units should appear under the column heading(s). Some remarks may be written below the table, but they should not repeat details given in the Materials and Methods section.

Figure Captions

     These must be a brief self-sufficient explanation of the illustrations. Provide them separately from figures.


     All figures (photographs, graphs, and diagrams) should be cited in the text and numbered consecutively throughout. Figures should provide enough information to easily understand them. Figure parts should be identified by lowercase roman letters (I, II, etc.) in parentheses. The axes of each graph should have the numerical scale and the measured quantity with units (for example, CO2 absorbance, μ molm-2s-1), but not photosynthesis, μmol/m-2s-1)). The curves should be defined by italic numbers, and their explanation should be provided in the caption. Submit all figures on separate pages. Supply figures at final size widths: 80 mm (single column) or 160 mm (double column). Maximum depth is 230 mm. Figure number, author’s name, and manuscript title should be written in the bottom left-hand corner.

     The manuscript should be signed by all authors. The electronic version is formed as a complete manuscript file, without figures. Text files should be submitted in Microsoft Word 6.0 or a later version, using Times New Roman font of 12 point size. Submit figures as separate files. The preferred figure format is TIFF, but JPEG and GIF are also permitted. Load your figures at 600 dpi (dots per inch) for linear and no less than 300 dpi for halftones and photos. Try to keep files under 5 MB.