Fatty Acid Composition of Canola Cultivars Affected by Different Sowing Dates

Document Type : Original Article

Authors

1 Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Karaj Branch, ‎Islamic Azad University, Karaj, Iran‎

2 Karaj branch Islamic Azad university, karaj, Iran

3 Seed and Plant Improvement Institute (SPII), Agricultural Research, Education and ‎Extension Organization (AREEO), Karaj, Iran.‎

4 Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences and ‎Engineering, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran

10.22034/ijpp.2021.1884670.1182

Abstract

To investigate the effect of sowing date on yield and qualitative traits of canola cultivars and cope ‎with late-season drought stress, an experiment was carried out for two planting years in Karaj (Iran). ‎Sowing dates in six levels including three fall and three winter sowing dates were considered as the ‎main factor and five canola cultivars (RGS003, Dalgan, Zabol10, Hyola401 and Hyola4815) as the ‎sub-factors. The results showed that except for palmitic acid, the simple effect of sowing date on all ‎the studied traits was significant in winter. The simple effect of cultivar on all traits in fall was ‎significant and in winter, it was only significant on the seed yield and seed oil yield. The interaction ‎between sowing date and cultivar in fall is the reason of significant effect of seed oil yield, linoleic ‎acid, linolenic acid, erucic acid and glucosinolate and in winter, it is the reason for the significance of ‎seed yield, oil content, oil yield and erucic acid. Dalgan cultivar had the highest seed yield and oil ‎yield on sowing date of October 7, and had the highest levels of oleic, linoleic and palmitic fatty ‎acids. In addition, with low and standard erucic acid and glucosinolate, this cultivar is recommended ‎based on the results of this study.‎

Keywords


Adamsen, F. J. and T. A. Coffelt, 2005. Planting date effects on flowering, seed yield and oil content          of rape and crambe cultivars. Industrial Crops and Products, 21: 293-307.
Aslam, M. N., M. N. Nelson, S. G. Kailis, K. L. Bayliss, J. Speijers and W. A. Cowling, 2009. Canola               oil         ‎increases in polyunsaturated fatty acids and decreases in oleic acid in drought-stressed Mediterranean-‎type environments. Plant Breeding, 128 (4): 348-355.
Azadmard-Damirchi, S. and P. C. Dutta, 2006. Novel solid-phase extraction method to separate 4-             desmethyl, 4-monomethyl, and 4,40-dimethylsterols in vegetable oils. Journal of Chromatography                A, 1108: 183-187. ‎
Azadmard-Damirchi, S., G. P. Savage and P. C. Dutta, 2005. Sterol fractions in hazelnut and virgin              olive oils and         4, 40-dimethylstrols as possible markers for detection of adulteration of virgin olive          oil. Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society, 82: 717-725.
Badri, A. R., A. H. Shiran Rad, S. Sharifzadeh and Z. Bitarafan, 2011. Sowing date effect on spring               safflower cultivars. Journal of Science and Advanced Technology, 1 (9): 139-44.
Bashir, M. U., N. Akbar, A. Iqbal and H. Zaman, 2010. Effect of different sowing date on yield and              yield components of direct seed coarse rice. Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Science, 74 (4): 361-   365.
Daneshian, A. M., A. R. Ahmadzadeh, H. A. Shahriar and A. R. Khanizadeh, 2008. Effect of sowing             dates on grain and biological yield, oil and meal protein percentage in three cultivars of rape (Brassica           napus L.). Research Journal of Biological Science, 3: 729-732.
Davoodi, A., B. Mirshekari, A. H. Shirani Rad, F. Farahvash and V. Rashidi, 2016. Effect of              selenium application on quantitative and qualitative characteristics of canola seed oil under delayed           planting conditions. Crop Physiology, 31: 129-143. (in Persian).
Enjalbert, J. N., S. Zheng, J. J. Johnson, J. L. Mullen, P. F. Byrne and J. K. McKay, 2013.     Brassicaceae       ‎germplasm diversity for agronomic and seed quality traits under drought stress.                Industrial Crops and Products, 47: 176-185.
Fieldsend, J. K., F. E. Murray, P. E. Bilsborrow, G. F. J. Milford and E. J. Evans, 1991.         Glucosinolate accumulation during seed development in winter sown oilseed rape (Brassica napus            L.), In: McGregor, D. I. (Ed.). Proceedings of 8th International Rapeseed Congress. Canada              Saskatoon, pp: 686-694.                                                                                                                           
Flagella, Z., T. Rotunno, E. Tarantino, R. Di Caterina and A. De Caro, 2002. Changes in seed yield                and oil fatty acid composition of high oleic sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) hybrids in relation to                the sowing date and water regime. European Journal of Agronomy, 17: 221-230.
ISO 5511, 1992, Oilseeds-Determination of oil Content-Method using continuous-wave low-        resolution nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry (Rapid method).
Javidfar, F., F. Reipley, H. Zeinaly, S. Abdmishani, A. A. Shah Nejat Boushehri, R. Tavakol              Afshari, B. Alizadeh and E. Jafarieh, 2007. Heritability of fatty acids composition in spring               oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.). Journal of Agricultural Science, 17 (3): 57-64.
Gan, Y., Angadi, S. V., H. Cutforth, D. Potts, V. V. Angadi and C. L. Mc Donald, 2004. Canola and mustard response to short periods of temperature and water stress at different developmental stages.     Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 84: 697-704.
Gallardo, M. A., H. J. Milisich, S. R. Drago and J. G. Rolando, 2014. Effect of ‎cultivars and planting              date on         yield, oil content, and fatty acid profile of ‎flax ‎varieties (Linum usitatissimum L.).                 International Journal of Agronomy ‎‎2014: ‎Article ID 150570, 7 pages.
Garsid, A. 2004. Sowing time effects on the development, yield and oil of falxseed in semi-arid tropical    Australia. Journal of production Agriculture, 23: 607-612.
Gecgel, U., M. Demirci, E. Esendal and M. Tasan, 2007. Fatty acid composition of the oil from      developing seeds of different cultivars of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.). Journal of the            American Oil Chemists' Society, 84: 47-54.
Gilbertson, P. K., B. L. Johnson, M. T. Berti and M.A. Halvorson, 2007. Seeding date and                 performance of specialty oilseeds in North Dakota. In: Janick, J. and A. Whipkey (Eds.): Issues in           New Crops and New Uses. ASHS Press, Alexandria, VA. 105110.
Harinder, P., S. Makkar, P. Siddhuraju and K. Becker, 2007. Plant secondary metabolites, Hummana         Press, pp: 58-60.
Hugly, S., L. Kunt, J. Browse and C. Somerville, 1989. Enhanced thermal tolerance of photosynthesis        and altered chloroplast ultrastructure in a mutant of Arabidopsis deficient in lipid desaturation. Plant       Physiology, 90: 1134-1142.
Kadivar, S. H., M. Ghavami, M. Gharachorloo and B. Delkhosh, 2010. Chemical evaluation of oil extracted from different varieties of colza. Food Technology and Nutrition, 7(2): 19-29.
Koutroubas, S. D. and D. K. Papadoska, 2005. Adaptation, grain yield and oil content of safflower in          Greece. Proceedings of the 5th International Safflower Conference, Istanbul, pp:161-166.
Mc-Conn, M. and J. Browse, 1996. The critical requirement for linolenic acid is pollen development,         net photosynthesis, in an Arabidopsis mutant. The Plant Cell, 8: 403416.
Miri, Y. and H. Bagheri, 2013. Evaluation planting date on agronomical traits of canola. International        Research Journal of Applied and Basic Sciences, 4 (3): 601-603. ‎
Nasr, N., M. Khayami, R. Heidary and R. Jameie, 2006. Genetic diversity among selected varieties of        Brassica napus (Cruciferea) based on biochemical composition of seeds. Journal of Science and             Technology of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Water and Soil Science, ‎‎32 (1): 37-40.
Ozer, H. 2003. Sowing date and nitrogen rate effects on growth, yield and yield components of two           summer rapeseed cultivars. European Journal of Agronomy, 19: 453-463. ‎
Pasban Eslam, B. 2011. Evaluation of physiological indices for improving water deficit tolerance in             spring safflower. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology, 13: 327-338. ‎
Pritchard, F. M., A. Eagels, R. M. Norton, P. A. Salisbury and M. Nicolas, 2000. Environmental     effects on seed composition of Victorian canola. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture, 40    (5): 679-685.
Rafiei, S., B. Delkhosh, A. H. Shirani Rad and P. Zandi, 2011. Effect of sowing dates and irrigation               regimes on agronomic traits of Indian mustard in semi-arid area of Takestan. Journal of American              Science, 7 (10): 721-728.
Rathke, G. W., O. Christen and W. Diepenbrock, 2005. Effects of nitrogen source and rate on       productivity and quality of winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) grown in different crop rotations.    Field Crops Research, 94: 103-113.
Robertson, M. J. and J. F. Holland, 2004. Production risk of canola in the semi-arid subtropics of Australia. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research, 55: 525-538. ‎
Safavi Fard, N., H. Heidari Sharifabad, A. H. Shirani Rad, E. Majidi Heravan and J. Daneshian,      2018. Effect of drought stress on qualitative characteristics of canola cultivars in winter cultivation. Industrial Crops and Products, 114: 87-92.
Scarth, R. and J. Tang, 2006. Modification of brassica oil using conventional and transgenic            approaches. Crop Science, 46: 1225-1236.
Shahsavari, N., H. M. Jais and A. H. Shirani, 2014. Responses of canola oil quality characteristics and        fatty acid composition to zeolite and zinc fertilization under drought stress. International Journal of      AgriScience, 4 (1): 49-59.
Sinaki, J. M., E. Majidi Heravan, A. H. Shirani Rad, G. Noormohammadi and G. Zarei, 2007. The effects of water deficit during growth stages of canola (Brassica napus L.). American Eurasian               Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Science, 2 (4): 417-422. ‎
Stefanoudaki, E., K. Chartzoulakis, A. Koutsaftakis and F. Kotsifaki, 2001. Effect of drought stress              on qualitative characteristics of olive oil of cv Koroneili. Grasas y Aceites, 52 (3): 202-206. ‎
Sulisbury, P., J. Sang and R. Cawood, 1987. Genetic and environmental factors influencing            glucosinolate content in rapeseed in southern Australia. In: Proceedings of the 7th International     Rapeseed Congress, Poland. The plant breeding and acclimatization institute, Poznan, pp: 516-520.
Tohidi Moghadam, H. R., H. Zahedi and F. Ghooshchi, 2011. Oil quality of canola cultivars in         response to water stress and super absorbent polymer application. Pesquisa Agropecuaria Tropical        41: 579-586.
Ul-Hassan, F., H. Ali, M. Akhtar Cheema and A. Manaf, 2005. Effects of environmental variation on           oil         content and fatty acid composition of canola cultivars. Journal of Research, (Science), 16 (2): 65-  72. ‎