Zinc oxide nano particles alleviate drought stress effects on soybean antioxidant system during germination

Document Type : Original Article


Department of Plant Production and Genetics, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Iran



In order to assess the effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZO-NP) on soybean seed germination under drought stress induced by polyethylene glycol, a factorial experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design at the University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran, in 2013. The experiment consisted of three levels of drought (0, -0.5 and -1 MPa) and various concentrations of ZO-NP (0, 0.5 and 1 g lit-1). The soybean seeds used in this experiment was the DPX prepared from the Moghan Agricultural Research Center. The results showed that drought stress reduced the activity of peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, malate synthase and isocitrate lyase enzymes together with the germination rate, ascorbate and alpha-tocopherol concentration. However, the use of ZO-NP could counteract the adverse effects of drought, so that non-enzymatic antioxidant levels and antioxidant enzyme activity was increased and this improved the germination rate. Applying ZO-NP increased the activity of isocitrate lyase and malate synthase enzymes. Based on these results, it seems that the use of ZN-OP can be one way to mitigate the adverse effects of drought stress during soybean germination.


Abdolrahmani B, Ghassemi-Golezani K, Valizadeh M, Feizi-Asl V, Tvakoli A (2009) Effects of seed priming on seed vigor and grain yield of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Abidar) in rainfed conditions. Iranian Journal of Crop Sciences 11 (4)
Aebi H (1984) [13] Catalase in vitro. Methods in enzymology 105:121-126
Agarwal S, Pandey V (2004) Antioxidant enzyme responses to NaCl stress in Cassia angustifolia. Biologia Plantarum 48 (4):555-560
Anjum NA, Aref IM, Duarte AC, Pereira E, Ahmad I, Iqbal M (2014) Glutathione and proline can coordinately make plants withstand the joint attack of metal (loid) and salinity stresses. Frontiers in plant science 5:662
Apel K, Hirt H (2004) Reactive oxygen species: metabolism, oxidative stress, and signal transduction. Annu Rev Plant Biol 55:373-399
Balešević-Tubić S, Malenčić Ð, Tatić M, Miladinović J (2014) Influence of aging process on biochemical changes in sunflower seed/influencia del proceso de envejecimiento en los cambios bioquímicos en la semilla de girasol/effet du processus de vieillissement sur les changements biochimiques dans la graine de tournesol.
Bhattacharjee S (2005) Reactive oxygen species and oxidative burst: Roles in stress, senescence and signal transducation in plants. Current Science:1113-1121
Bradford K, Nonogaki H (2008) Annual plant reviews, seed development, dormancy and germination, vol 27. John Wiley & Sons,
Brown EM, Vassilev PM, Hebert SC (1995) Calcium ions as extracellular messengers. Cell 83 (5):679-682
De Pinto M, Francis D, De Gara L (1999) The redox state of the ascorbate-dehydroascorbate pair as a specific sensor of cell division in tobacco BY-2 cells. Protoplasma 209 (1):90-97
Eastmond PJ, Graham IA (2001) Re-examining the role of the glyoxylate cycle in oilseeds. Trends in plant science 6 (2):72-78
George E, Marschner H, Jakobsen I (1995) Role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in uptake of phosphorus and nitrogen from soil. Critical reviews in biotechnology 15 (3-4):257-270
Giannopolitis CN, Ries SK (1977) Superoxide dismutases: I. Occurrence in higher plants. Plant physiology 59 (2):309-314
Gill SS, Tuteja N (2010) Reactive oxygen species and antioxidant machinery in abiotic stress tolerance in crop plants. Plant physiology and biochemistry 48 (12):909-930
Hayashi M, De Bellis L, Alpi A, Nishimura M (1995) Cytosolic aconitase participates in the glyoxylate cycle in etiolated pumpkin cotyledons. Plant and cell physiology 36 (4):669-680
Hilhorst HW, Bradford K, Nonogaki H (2007) Definitions and hypotheses of seed dormancy. Annual Plant Reviews: Seed Development, Dormancy and Germination 27:50-71
Iqbal MA (2019) Nano-fertilizers for sustainable crop production under changing climate: a global perspective. Sustainable Crop Production
Jin XF, Yang XE, Islam E, Liu D, Mahmood Q, Li H, Li J (2008) Ultrastructural changes, zinc hyperaccumulation and its relation with antioxidants in two ecotypes of Sedum alfredii Hance. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry 46 (11):997-1006
Kaya MD, Okçu G, Atak M, Cıkılı Y, Kolsarıcı Ö (2006) Seed treatments to overcome salt and drought stress during germination in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). European journal of agronomy 24 (4):291-295
Keleş Y, Öncel I (2002) Response of antioxidative defence system to temperature and water stress combinations in wheat seedlings. Plant Science 163 (4):783-790
Latifzadeh M, Aboutalebian M, Zavareh M, Rabiei M (2013) Effects of seed priming and sowing dates on seedling emergence, yield and yield components of a local genotype bean as a double crop in Rasht. Iranian Journal of field crop science 44 (1)
Lim Y, Traber MG (2007) Alpha-tocopherol transfer protein (α-TTP): Insights from alpha-tocopherol transfer protein knockout mice. Nutrition research and practice 1 (4):247-253
Lin Z-H, Chen L-S, Chen R-B, Zhang F-Z, Jiang H-X, Tang N, Smith BR (2011) Root release and metabolism of organic acids in tea plants in response to phosphorus supply. Journal of plant physiology 168 (7):644-652
MacAdam JW, Nelson CJ, Sharp RE (1992) Peroxidase activity in the leaf elongation zone of tall fescue: I. Spatial distribution of ionically bound peroxidase activity in genotypes differing in length of the elongation zone. Plant Physiology 99 (3):872-878
Marschner H (2011) Marschner's mineral nutrition of higher plants. Academic press,
McKersie BD, Murnaghan J, Jones KS, Bowley SR (2000) Iron-superoxide dismutase expression in transgenic alfalfa increases winter survival without a detectable increase in photosynthetic oxidative stress tolerance. Plant Physiology 122 (4):1427-1438
Mohammadi A, Habibi D, Rohami M, Mafakheri S (2011) Effect of drought stress on antioxidant enzymes activity of some chickpea cultivars. Am-Euras J Agric Environ Sci 11 (6):782-785
Munné-Bosch S, Mueller M, Schwarz K, Alegre L (2001) Diterpenes and antioxidative protection in drought-stressed Salvia officinalis plants. Journal of plant physiology 158 (11):1431-1437
Murthy SS (1996) Molecular cloning and analysis of pea cytosolic monodehydroascorbate reductase. Rutgers The State University of New Jersey-New Brunswick,
Muscolo A, Sidari M, Mallamaci C, Attinà E (2007) Changes in germination and glyoxylate and respiratory enzymes of Pinus pinea seeds under various abiotic stresses. Journal of Plant Interactions 2 (4):273-279
Pastori GM, Foyer CH (2002) Common components, networks, and pathways of cross-tolerance to stress. The central role of “redox” and abscisic acid-mediated controls. Plant physiology 129 (2):460-468
Poornima R, Koti R (2019) Effect of nano zinc oxide on growth, yield and grain zinc content of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor). J Pharmacogn Phytochem 8 (4):727-731
Quiroga M, Guerrero C, Botella MA, Barceló A, Amaya I, Medina MI, Alonso FJ, de Forchetti SM, Tigier H, Valpuesta V (2000) A tomato peroxidase involved in the synthesis of lignin and suberin. Plant physiology 122 (4):1119-1128
Raeesi Sadati SY, Jahanbakhsh Godekahriz S, Sedghi M (2016) The effect of cadmium and mercuric chlorides on some physiological traits in two cultivars of wheat. Iranian Journal of Plant Physiology 6 (3):1761-1770
Rosales MA, Ruiz JM, Hernández J, Soriano T, Castilla N, Romero L (2006) Antioxidant content and ascorbate metabolism in cherry tomato exocarp in relation to temperature and solar radiation. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 86 (10):1545-1551
Sairam R, Srivastava G (2002) Changes in antioxidant activity in sub-cellular fractions of tolerant and susceptible wheat genotypes in response to long term salt stress. Plant Science 162 (6):897-904
Sattler SE, Mene-Saffrane L, Farmer EE, Krischke M, Mueller MJ, DellaPenna D (2006) Nonenzymatic lipid peroxidation reprograms gene expression and activates defense markers in Arabidopsis tocopherol-deficient mutants. The Plant Cell 18 (12):3706-3720
Scott S, Jones R, Williams W (1984) Review of data analysis methods for seed germination 1. Crop science 24 (6):1192-1199
Sedghi M, Hadi M, Toluie SG (2013) Effect of nano zinc oxide on the germination parameters of soybean seeds under drought stress. Annales of West University of Timisoara Series of Biology 16 (2):73
Sheykhbaglou R, Sedghi M, Fathi-Achachlouie B (2018) The effect of ferrous nano-oxide particles on physiological traits and nutritional compounds of soybean (Glycine max L.) seed. Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências 90:485-494
Sunkar R, Bartels D, Kirch HH (2003) Overexpression of a stress‐inducible aldehyde dehydrogenase gene from Arabidopsis thaliana in transgenic plants improves stress tolerance. The Plant Journal 35 (4):452-464
Taran M, Rad M, Alavi M (2017) Antibacterial activity of copper oxide (CuO) nanoparticles biosynthesized by Bacillus sp. FU4: optimization of experiment design. Pharmaceutical Sciences 23 (3):198-206
Turk MA, Rahman A, Tawaha M, Lee K (2004) Seed germination and seedling growth of three lentil cultivars under moisture stress. Asian Journal of Plant Sciences (Pakistan)
Turkan I (2011) Plant responses to drought and salinity stress-Developments in a post-genomic era. Advances in botanical research 57
Varma S (2021) Heavy metals stress and defense strategies in plants: An overview. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry 10 (1):608-614
Veljovic-Jovanovic SD, Pignocchi C, Noctor G, Foyer CH (2001) Low ascorbic acid in the vtc-1 mutant of Arabidopsis is associated with decreased growth and intracellular redistribution of the antioxidant system. Plant Physiology 127 (2):426-435
Waraich EA, Ahmad R, Ashraf M (2011) Role of mineral nutrition in alleviation of drought stress in plants. Australian Journal of Crop Science 5 (6):764-777
Weisany W, Sohrabi Y, Heidari G, Siosemardeh A, Ghassemi-Golezani K (2012) Changes in antioxidant enzymes activity and plant performance by salinity stress and zinc application in soybean ('Glycine max'L.). Plant Omics 5 (2):60-67
Yıldıztugay E, Sekmen A, Turkan I, Kucukoduk M (2011) Elucidation of physiological and biochemical mechanisms of an endemic halophyte Centaurea tuzgoluensis under salt stress. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry 49 (8):816-824
Zhang F, Zhang H, Wang G, Xu L, Shen Z (2009) Cadmium-induced accumulation of hydrogen peroxide in the leaf apoplast of Phaseolus aureus and Vicia sativa and the roles of different antioxidant enzymes. Journal of hazardous materials 168 (1):76-84