Document Type : Original Article
Department. of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz. Iran
Department. of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Iran
In order to investigate the responses of potato plantlets under in vitro conditions to osmotic and temperature stresses, a factorial experiment was carried out in a completely randomized design with three replications. Each replicate contained a glass jar with 5 explants grown in it. The first factor was water deficit at four levels of osmotic stress caused by polyethylene glycol 6000 including control, -0.5,-0.1, and -1.5 MPa and the second factor was temperature at three levels of 15, 25 and 35° C. Five potato cultivars, including 3 promising clones, 143, 301, and 306 as well as Marfona and Picasso cultivars were exposed to stresses in MS medium. Eight weeks after stress period, indicators such as fresh and dry weights of plantlets, electrolyte leakage, proline, catalase, phosphorus, and potassium concentrations were measured. The results of variance analysis indicated that the simple effects of factors as well as the interactions of the investigated factors at P≤0.01 had a significant effect on the study traits. Mean comparison showed that the temperature stress decreased the fresh and dry weights of plantlets and potassium concentration but increased electrolyte leakage, proline, catalase, and phosphorus concentration. On the other hand, osmotic stress reduced fresh and dry weight of plantlets, P and K, while proline, CAT, and electrolyte leakage increased. The combination of stresses lowered plantlets’ resistance to stresses because osmotic stress of -0.5 MPa and higher, in combination with 35° C caused the explants to dry. Finally, results showed that Marfona cultivar was more tolerant to stress conditions than other genotypes. This seems to be the result of accumulating more proline and high antioxidant activity. On the other hand, clone 306 was more susceptible to stress than other genotypes and the plantlets 306 experienced more damage and dried.