Effects of climate and soil properties on phytochemical characteristics of Ferulago angulate (Schltdl.) Boiss

Document Type : Original Article


Department of Agronomy and Medicinal Plants, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahrekord Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shahrekord, Iran. PO. Box: 166



This research investigated the effects of climate and soil on the content and components of essential oils in Ferulago angulate (Schltdl.) Boiss, belonging to the Apiaceae family. Aerial parts of plants were collected from three elevations (2500, 3000, and 3500 m above sea level) and three regions (Kallar Mountain from Boroujen, Mili Mountain from Koohrang, and Saldaran Mountain in Farsan, Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari province) with three replications. Results suggested that soil and climatic conditions had significant effects on the quantitative and qualitative properties of essential oils. The highest (0.65%) and the lowest (0.15%) levels of essential oils were obtained from elevation of Mountain Kallar (3000 m) and Mili Mountain (3500 m), respectively. Forty-four compounds were detected most of them being alpha-pinene, alpha-thujene, alpha-phellandrene, cis-ocimene, beta-phellandrene, beta ocimene, and nonadecane. As for regional variations, most of alpha-pinene (20.88%), betaocimene (6.8%), cis-ocimene (23.6%) were recorded in the elevation of 3000 m from Saldaran Mountain and alpha-thujene (10.14%), alpha-phellandrene (3.49%), nonadecane (5.01%), and beta-phellandrene (7.57%) were obtained in the elevation of 3000 m from Kallar Mountain in clay loam soil texture. The lowest values were obtained from elevations of 3500 m in each region especially in sandy clay soil texture in Mili Mountain. It seems that the greater amount of nutrients was due to the presence of clay-loam texture, and the less environmental stresses and desirable soil enrichment in this elevation led to an increase in the essential oils content and components of this plant.


Adams, R.P., 2007. Quadruple Mass Spectra of Compounds Listed in Order of Their Retention Time on DB-5. In Identification of Essential Oil Components by Gas Chromatography/ Mass Spectroscopy'. 4th ed. IL 60188-2787. Allured publishing Corp, Carol Stream, USA.
Baczek, K., O. Kosavowska., L. Jaroslaw and Z. Przibil. 2016. 'Accumulation of phenolic compounds in the purple betony herb (Stachys officinalis L.) originated from cultivation'. Herbal Botanica, 62: 7-16.
Figuieredo, A.C., J.G. Barroso., L.G. Pedro and J.C. Scheffer. 2008. 'Factors affecting secondary metabolite production in plants volatile components and essential oils'. Flavour and Fragrance Journal, 23: 213-226.
Ghasemi Pirbalouti, A and M. Mohammadi, 2013. 'Phytochemical composition of the essential oil of different populations of Stachys lavandula folia'. Asian Pacific Journal Tropical Biomedical, 3:123-128.
Kalt, W. 2005. 'Effects of production and processing factors and major fruit and vegetables antioxidants'. Journal of Food Science, 70: 11-19.
Kizil, S and O. Toncer, 2006. 'Influence of different harvest times on the yield and oil composition of spearmint (Mentha spicatal Spicata)'. Food Agricultural Environmental, 4:135-137.
Kremer, D., V. Matevski and V. Dunkic. 2016. 'Essential oil contents and micro-morphological traits of Stachys iva and S. horvaticii Micevski (Lamiaceae)'. Records of Natural Products, 10: 228-39.
Maxwell, A and P. Jones, 2007. 'Factors affecting the growth and secondary metabolism of medicinal plants'. Mississippi State, North Mississippi Research and Extension Center. 5421 S Hwy 145, Verona, MS 38879.
Mozaffarian, V. 2008. A Pictorial Dictionary of Botany Botanical Taxonomy Latin-English-French-Germany-Persian, Germany: Koeltz Scientific Books.
Omer, A. 2008.' Effect of soil type and seasonal variation on growth, yield, essential oil and artemisin content of Artemisia annua L.' International Research Journal of Horticulture, 1: 15-27.
Özkan, A.M.G., B. Demirci., F. Demirci and K.H.C. Baser. 2008. 'Composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oil of Ferulago longistylis Boiss. Journal of Essential Oil Research, 20: 569-73.
Rustaiyan, A and S. Sedaghat. 2002. 'Ferulago angolata (Schlecht) Boiss. from Iran'. Journal of Essential Oil Research, 146: 447-510.
Viljoen, A.M., S. Petkar and S.F.A. Van Vuuren. 2006. 'Chemo geographical variation in essential oil composition and the antimicrobial properties of Mentha longifolia sub sp. polyadena in southern Africa'. Journal of Essential Oil Research, 18: 60-65.
Vokou, D., S. Kokkini and J.M. Bessiere. 1993. 'Geographic variation of Greek oregano (Origanum vulgare ssp) essential oils'. Biochemistry System Ecology, 21: 287–295.
Yadegari, M and F. Mohmmadian. 2015. 'Ecological diversity and phytochemical properties medicinal plant (Stachys pilifera) in Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad province'. International Journal of Biology Pharmacy Allied Science, 4: 182-188.
Yadegari, M and S. Yousefi. 2016. 'Effects of environmental conditions on morphological and physiological characters of Cynara scolymus'. Bangladesh Journal of Botany, 45:605-10.
Yadegari, M., M. Alimohammadi and H.A. Shirmardi. 2017. 'Effect of elevation and phenological stages on essential oil composition of Stachys'. Turkish Journal of Biochemistry, 42:647-656.
Yadegari, M., N. Amiri and B. Hamedi. 2018. 'Essential oil composition of Cirsium arvense L. produced in different climate and soil properties'. Record of Natural Products, 12:251-62.