Toxicity of pesticides to plants and non-target organism: A comprehensive review

Document Type : Reviews


1 Departmenr of Bioengineering, Integral University

2 Department of Biotechnology, Ashoka Institute of Technology and Management, Varanasi

3 Department of Bioengineering, Integral University, Lucknow



Pesticides are agrochemical used to increase agronomic production and higher economic profit. However, these chemical pesticides could be persistent in soil and water, collective in silt or bio-aggregates in biota relying upon their dissolvability, prompting various kinds of natural contamination. These pesticides have also shown detrimental effects such as phytotoxicity, genotoxicity, and cytotoxicity on targets plant along with alteration in the antioxidant system. The demerits continue as they also affect non-target species such as humans, birds, animals, and other aquatic organisms. The higher accumulations of pesticides are also responsible for the generation of ROS that leads to oxidative stress and finally cell demise. Thus, in this review, the toxicity of pesticides will be discussed in detail at a cellular and molecular level linked with the response of the plant defense system. Besides this, various strategies that have been commonly used worldwide to remediate the toxicity have also been highlighted in the later section. The study will facilitate plant researcher and chemical engineer to understand the gap between the research and a novel, innovative and cost-effective technique/ procedure will be outlined for healthy environments