The effects of glycine betaine and L-arginine on biochemical properties of pot marigold (calendula officinalis L.) under water stress

Document Type: Original Article

Authors

1 Department of Horticulture and Agronomy Science, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research branch, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Islamic Azad University, Saveh Branch, Saveh, Iran

3 Plant Biotechnology Group, National Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (NIGEB), Tehran, Iran

10.22034/ijpp.2019.667133

Abstract

Pot marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) is widely used due to its various biological activities to treat diseases as an analgesic, anti-diabetic, anti-ulcer and anti-inflammatory agent. To ameliorate the adverse effects of water stress on this medicinal plant, foliar application of glycine betaine (GB) and L-arginine (LA) was used. For this purpose, water stress was applied at three levels (100%, 70% , and 40% field capacity (FC)), and foliar application was used at five levels (control, 50 mM GB, 100 mM GB, 1.5 mM LA, and 3 mM LA) as factorial based on completely randomized  design. We measured phenol and flavonoid content, DPPH radical scavenging activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activity, and essential oil (EO) content and yield. Total phenol content in the interaction of 40% FC and GB 100 mM was higher than the other treatments. The highest and lowest total flavonoid content and DPPH radical scavenging activity were observed in the interaction of 40% FC and 100% FC, respectively. These variables at GB 100 mM were greater than the others. The highest SOD and PAL activity was found in the interaction of 40% FC and LA 3 mM/GB 100 mM. The content and yield of EO in the interaction of 70% FC and 100 mM GB were greater than other treatments. In sum, 70% of water stress did not significantly change the biochemical properties of C. officinalis, but 40% FC dramatically influenced the quality of the plant. GB 100 mM could stimulate the plant to activate its antioxidant systems under water stress and obtain the highest EO.

Keywords